author = {Kyungsoo Lee and Naehyuck Chang and Jianli Zhuo and Chaitali Chakrabarti and Sudheendra Kadri and Sarma Vrudhula},

title = {A Fuel-Cell-Battery Hybrid for Portable Embedded Systems},

journal = {ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems (TODAES)},

year = {2008},

publisher = {},

volume = {13},

number = {1},

pages  = {},

month = {January},

note = {},

abstract = {This article presents our work on the development of a fuel cell (FC) and battery hybrid (FC-Bh) system for use in portable microelectronic systems. We describe the design and control of the hybrid system, as well as a dynamic power management (DPM)-based energy management policy that extends its operational lifetime. The FC is of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) type, operates at room temperature, and has an energy density which is 4–6 times that of a Li-ion battery. The FC cannot respond to sudden changes in the load, and so a system powered solely by the FC is not economical. An FC-Bh power source, on the other hand, can provide the high energy density of the FC and the high power density of a battery. In this work we first describe the prototype FC-Bh system that we have built. Such a prototype helps to characterize the performance of a hybrid power source, and also helps explore new energy management strategies for embedded systems powered by hybrid sources. Next we describe a Matlab/Simulink-based FC-Bh system simulator which serves as an alternate experimental platform and that enables quick evaluation of system-level control policies. Finally, we present an optimization framework that explicitly considers the characteristics of the FC-Bh system and is aimed at minimizing the fuel consumption. This optimization framework is applied on top of a prediction-based DPM policy and is used to derive a new fuel-efficient DPM scheme. The proposed scheme demonstrates up to 32% system lifetime extension compared to a competing scheme when run on a real trace-based MPEG encoding example.},

keywords = {Simulation, battery, fuel cell, hybrid systems, DPM, simulator},