author = {Hyunggyu Lee and Kyungsoo Lee and Yongseok Choi and Naehyuck Chang},

title = {Cycle-Accurate Energy Measurement and Characterization of FPGAs},

journal = {Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing (AIC SP)},

year = {2005},

publisher = {Springer Netherlands},

volume = {42},

number = {3},

pages  = {239-251},

month = {March},

note = {},

abstract = {Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) play many important roles, ranging from small glue logic replacement to System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. Nevertheless, FPGA vendors cannot accurately specify the power consumption of their products on device data sheets because the power consumption of FPGAs is strongly dependent on the target circuit, including resource utilization, logic partitioning, mapping, placement and routing. Although major CAD tools have started to report average power consumption under given transition activities, power-efficient FPGA design demands more detailed information about power consumption. In this paper, we introduce an in-house cycle-accurate FPGA energy measurement tool and energy characterization schemes spanning low-level to high-level design. This tool offers all the capabilities necessary to investigate the energy consumption of FPGAs for operationbased energy characterization, which is applicable to high-level and system-wide energy estimation. It also includes features for low-level energy characterization. We compare our tool with Xilinx XPower and demonstrate the statemachine-based energy characterization of an SDRAM controller.},

keywords = {},