author = {Yanzhi Wang and Xue Lin and Massoud Pedram and Sangyoung Park and Naehyuck Chang},

title = {Optimal Control of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Homes},

booktitle = {Proceedings of Proceedings of Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE)},

year = {2013},

pages  = {881-886},

location = {Grenoble, France},

month = {March},

note = {},

abstract = {Integrating residential photovoltaic (PV) power generation and electrical energy storage (EES) systems into the Smart Grid is an effective way of utilizing renewable power and reducing the consumption of fossil fuels. This has become a particularly interesting problem with the introduction of dynamic electricity energy pricing models since electricity consumers can use their PV-based energy generation and EES systems for peak shaving on their power demand profile from the grid, and thereby, minimize their electricity bill. Due to the characteristics of a realistic electricity price function and the energy storage capacity limitation, the control algorithm for a residential EES system should accurately account for various energy loss components during operation. Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems are proposed to exploit the strengths of each type of EES element and hide its weaknesses so as to achieve a combination of performance metrics that is superior to those of any of its individual EES components. This paper introduces the problem of how best to utilize a HEES system for a residential Smart Grid user equipped with PV power generation facilities. The optimal control algorithm for the HEES system is developed, which aims at minimization of the total electricity cost over a billing period under a general electricity energy price function. The proposed algorithm is based on dynamic programming and has polynomial time complexity. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed HEES system and optimal control algorithm achieves 73.9% average

profit enhancement over baseline homogeneous EES systems.},

keywords = {hybrid electrical energy storage system; smart grid; optimal control},